The monocotyledonous a plant a narcissus (Narcissus) is the representative of the Amarillisovye family. This spring flower concerns some of the earliest. The sort unites about 60 types. In nature, the narcissus most often meets in the Mediterranean, the southern part of Europe, and in Asia. Gardeners cultivate only 25 types of narcissus, and a set of the hybrids united under the name “hybrid narcissus”.
Short description of cultivation
- Landing. In August or in the first days of September.
- Excavation. After foliage becomes yellow and will be beaten down.
- Storage. Bulbs are stored in a well-aired room in which temperature has to remain at the level of about 17 degrees.
Blossoming in the spring
- Illumination. The shaded and solar site is suitable for landing and also what is in a shadow.
- Soil. The earth has to be nutritious, it is good to pass water and air, to be sated with a hummus. And its acidity can vary from alkalescent to subacidic.
- Watering. The narcissus should be watered moderately, but systematically.
- Fertilizer. In springtime after the emergence of the first sprouts ― full complex, during an exit of a flower stalk ― nitrogen-potassium, during formation of buds ― full complex, and during
- Blossoming ― potassium-phosphorus fertilizer. It is impossible to use manure for fertilizing.
- Reproduction. Seeds make multiple copies much less than bulbs.
- Mean insects. Mites, nematodes, onions, slugs.
- Diseases. Fusariosis, gray decay, пенициллез, yellow and white virus, ring spottiness.
- Properties. All parts of a plant contain poison as alkaloid нарциссин is their part.
Features of a narcissus
The blossoming plant a narcissus has dense bulbs and 2–4 sheet plates of a tape-like form of different width. Radical sheet plates of a linear form appear before a flower stalk. On top of a stalk, there is a formation of a flower.
Different types of a narcissus a form луковичек different can have it oval, ovoid, pointed or round. At a part of types of a bulbs form a nest, on one collum several bulbs which are wrapped up by the painted scales are formed. Annually old backs at луковичек die off, and on their place grow new, a life expectancy of roots ― no more than 10 months.
The hanging or direct flowers can be a part of an umbrella clustery inflorescence in the number of 2–8 pieces or to be single. A form of a petal ― the tubular funnel turning in the top part into horizontally located bending. The whisk can possess a tubular, bells or cup-shaped form, he is created by outgrowths of shares of a perianth which are most often painted in other shade.
Flowers can be painted in yellow or white color. Also, views and grades with a two-color color of flowers meet. In the diameter, they can reach 20–100 mm. The fruit represents from three nests box in which there are seeds.
Most often bushes in height reach from 0.1 to 0.5 meters. It is possible to decorate with daffodils the garden site, and if desired they can be grown up also in house conditions. Blossoming is observed in April-May.
Preparation for landing
Narcissuses belong to primroses. In a garden, they appear very much early together with crocuses, hyacinths, and tulips. The plant is quite unpretentious, however, if you do not have enough time to provide flowers good care, then it is better not to decorate with them the site. The matter is that only if to provide to a narcissus due care, he will be able to grow up it what has to be.
Choice of the site
Special attention should be paid to the choice of the site on which narcissuses will grow. It has to be obligatory solar, the soil is necessary well-passing water and air. Best of all culture grows on neutral loam in which under rejigging humus or compost was brought, pay attention that manure cannot be used as fertilizer.
Too alkaline soil is corrected entering into it of dolomite powder (on 1 sq.m of the site of 200 grams), at the same time in too sour earth bring wood ashes (on 1 sq.m of 1 article). Lilies, tulips and other bulbous, and long-term asters, chrysanthemums and phloxes are considered as bad predecessors of daffodils. But the site where earlier were grown up the bean, peonies, cereals, a nightshade family and cucumbers perfectly is suitable for cultivation of such flower culture.
Disembarkation bulbs to the open soil are carried out after warm weather is established. In springtime most specialized shops very cheap sell the stale goods, therefore, the gardener has an opportunity to get a bulb of rare grades of narcissuses for nothing.
However, when choosing landing material it is necessary to consider that bulb should not be weakened or soft as the probability that they will not ascend is high. However, if all of them grow up, they should provide very good care. The most suitable time for acquisition of landing material ― 3 months later after blossoming.
Experts do not advise to buy bulb: in springtime; extracted from the earth with escapes, roots, and flowers during blossoming or at once after its termination; polyconic, if a big bulb at them one, and all other small; with the appeared sprout.
Before breaking to landing, it is necessary to perform inspection bulbs, at the same time all delete affected with a disease, excessively soft, with a sick collum or injured. That landing material which will undergo selection needs to be disinfected, for this purpose it for 30 minutes is immersed in solution of manganese potassium (1%) or fungicide medicine (3%).
Landing of narcissuses to the open ground
In what time to put
For the period of disembarkation of narcissuses to the open ground weather conditions of the concrete region influence. As well as other bulbous cultures, narcissuses are recommended to be landed in a garden in autumn time.
In middle latitudes it is the best of all to land them in September that bulb well took roots, they need from 20 to 30 days. Landing can also be carried out also to winter time, and at the very beginning of spring, however anyway before disembarkation of a bulb, it is necessary to prepare.
For this purpose they for 60 days are put on the shelf of the refrigerator, otherwise, they will not be able normally to take roots and will not create flowers. Bulbs which on storage were placed in the refrigerator can be planted to the open soil in the second half of April, but only in case of snow cover already descends. The narcissuses landed at this time perfectly take roots at air temperature from 5 to 7 degrees.
Landing is carried out at the beginning of spring. But before starting it, it is necessary to prepare the site, for this purpose, it is dug over approximately on the depth of a bayonet of a shovel and introduce fertilizers in soil: hummus (on 1 square meter of 60 grams), and sand.
If you did not manage to prepare the site properly, then landing can, all the same, be carried out, but only in case, the composition of soil is optimum for the cultivation of this culture. Dig out landing poles which depth has to be equal to 3 diameters of a bulb on the prepared site.
Then in a pole fill up a sand handful, 2 big spoons of wood ashes and stack a bulb there. Cover a pole to the half with earth mixed with compost and well water, after that fill it with soil up to the top and stamp its surface.
The distance between landing holes depends on whether you later will carry out 1-year seating of narcissuses or they will grow on this site for 5 years. In case you decided to seat them, then the distance between holes has to be from 7 to 10 centimeters.
If they grow in the same place of 5 years, in this case, the distance between bushes has to be from 15 to 20 centimeters. When landing is complete, the surface of the soil is recommended to be filled up with a layer of mulch as which it is possible to use a nutshell, the crushed straw, sawdust of strong breeds of trees or a mowed grass.
The layer of mulch is capable to contain the growth of weeds, and it does not allow to evaporate to moisture from soil very quickly. Also, the mulch is good the fact that the surface of the site which is filled up with it does not need to be loosened after each watering.
Landing in the fall
If a landing is carried out in the fall, then it is necessary to be engaged in the preparation of the site in the summertime.
For this purpose carry out rejigging of soil on the depth of a bayonet of a shovel and bring in it 2 tablespoons of superphosphate, 4–5 kilograms of peat or compost, and 1 tablespoon of “Agricola for the blossoming plants” at the rate on 1 square meter of the site.
If soil excessively heavy, then it is possible to correct it entering into the soil on ½ buckets of the rerouting humus and sand at the rate on 1 square meter.
Then carry out repeated rejigging on depth from 10 to 15 centimeters and leave the site alone before the landing. Land bulb and look after them in autumn time in the same way as in the spring.
Remember that fall ― this most suitable time for a landing of narcissuses, for this reason, experienced gardeners carry out landing in the spring only in extreme cases.
If the flower grows on the same place of 4 or 5 years, and it strongly expanded, then it will be required to take it from the soil, to separate from a bulb of children and to seat them. Do it after the bush fades. This method of reproduction is the simplest and reliable.
Care of narcissuses
At the very beginning of spring, narcissuses have to start in growth. At once after the emergence of sprouts narcissuses, it is necessary to feed up the first time mineral fertilizer (on 1 square meter of the site of 30 grams).
The second time flowers feed up during the formation of buds in the last days of May, at the same time on 1 square meter of the site 20 grams of mineral fertilizer undertake. That bushes blossomed most magnificently and long, the second fertilizing will need to be repeated after a while.
When blossoming ends, a plant it is necessary to feed up the mix of potash and phosphoric fertilizer (1:2), at the same time on 1 square meter of the site undertakes from 50 to 60 grams of the nutritious mix. After entering into the soil of fertilizer, it should be watered, and then to loosen a surface.
Narcissuses belong to hygrophilous plants, in this regard, it is necessary to water them regularly and plentifully (on 1 square meter of the site 20 liters of water undertake).
When flowers are watered, do not forget to loosen the surface of the soil and to pull out all weeds, but only in case, the site is not filled up with a mulch layer. Thus it is necessary to look after culture from the moment of emergence of sprouts and before blossoming ends.
Leaving after blossoming
After bushes fade, they should be watered and loosened about them soil with the same frequency on an extent of 15-20 days. If on the site to land various grades of a narcissus, then they will be able to please you with the blossoming throughout all summer.
Also, do not forget that narcissuses will be the most beautiful only if you feed up them in time and well to look after them. The flowers which began to wither need to be torn off, otherwise the plant will many spend forces for formation and ripening of seeds that will negatively affect growth and development луковичек.
Change of narcissuses
To understand that narcissuses need change, it is possible on flowers. If they began to become shallow and also their quality, then most likely worsened, they need change during which carry out the division of bulbs.
Change is carried out after bushes fade. Do not forget to prepare previously the new site, for this purpose it is dug over and introduce fertilizers to the soil. It is necessary to dig out and carry out the division of narcissuses only after their foliage becomes yellow and will wither naturally.
It can happen only later a few months after the end of blossoming if steady rains are observed. During the vegetation period on average 2–4 new bulbs are formed of one bulb. After bulbs are taken from the soil, at them it is necessary to cut off all faded foliage and also perform their careful inspection.
Patients and the bulb damaged by wreckers reject. From a surface of bulbs, suitable for landing, remove the died-off scales then they are washed out and disinfect for 30 minutes in a strong solution of permanganate of potassium.
Then carry out their division. Tear off all easily separating children. Those cloves which come off hardly need to try to be loosened accurately if all the same, they separated with effort, then carry out processing of places of a break by wood ashes or coal powder.
Do not cut off live roots from bulbs at all. After that, they are displayed in the shaded place for drying, and then placed on storage. For this purpose, they are removed to the cool place (not warmer than 17 degrees), at the same time they need to be spread out so that they did not adjoin with each other, in this case, their wounds will be able to cicatrize.
You should not delay planting of bulbs, from the moment of extraction them from the soil before landing there have to pass no more than 8 weeks. How to land narcissuses to the open ground, it is in more detail told above.
Reproduction of narcissuses
It is possible to multiply such bloomer not only cloves and their children. Also, it can be grown up from seeds. For crops use fresh-gathered seed material which did not manage to dry out yet. Collecting seeds is carried out in the middle of the summer period or late fall.
It is possible to seed them in boxes or flat dishes, and if desired and to the open soil. It is necessary to sow seeds not densely, at the same time depth of crops has to be equal to three diameters of a seed.
For the first 1–2 years specialists do not advise to dive or replace shoots as at them the strong good bulb has to be created. When it occurs, very young flowers are replaced to the open ground to the constant place.
The first blossoming of the narcissuses which are grown up from seeds is observed only later 6-7 flyings, and small-flowered types ― 3 or 4 years later. Pay attention that seed reproduction is suitable for cultivation only of wild-growing types. If from seeds to grow up a hybrid form, then seedlings will not be able to keep high-quality signs of a parental plant.
Wreckers and diseases of narcissuses
The best prevention of appearance of diseases and wreckers ― this observance of all agrotechnical rules of culture. However, even in this case, the disease can affect narcissuses. Most often they are ill fungus diseases which signs are very similar between themselves. The greatest danger to narcissuses is constituted by fusarium wilt.
Right at the beginning the clove collum is surprised, and then the disease begins to rise gradually up to a bush. On a surface of cloves, the pinkish-white plaque is formed, and they are softened, at sheet plates, tips turn yellow, then grow brown and as a result dry up.
In certain cases, culture is struck by a blueberry blossom blight which externally looks like a fluffy plaque of a gray color with a black spot which is formed under the covering leaves of cloves. On foliage, there are pale brown specks increasing in sizes, and buds and escapes rot.
There is also it that the flower is surprised penicillanic decay, as a result in springtime from cloves sprouts, do not appear. The course of disease happens because of the very high humidity. For the purpose of prevention of fungal diseases just before disembarkation of clove for 30 minutes, it is necessary to ship in Maxim’s solution.
At the very beginning of the vegetation period, the appeared sprouts process solution of the Bordeaux mix (1.5%). Also, viral diseases can affect culture, for example, yellow or white stripe, mosaic virus, ring spottiness, etc.
Symptoms of all viral diseases are very similar between themselves: development of flowers worsens, cloves become shallow, specks of various color appear. The defeat of narcissuses a viral disease can happen through wreckers, soil, pollen, seed material or garden tools. Because of it to struggle with such dangerous diseases very difficult the matter is that today they are considered as incurable.
- For disembarkation to the open soil it is recommended to use only absolutely healthy and big cloves which before it surely disinfect. Small cloves get sick much quicker.
- It is necessary to begin in due time pest control, the being main carriers of viruses, namely: with bugs, mites, leafhoppers, whiteflies, and nematodes.
- In time dig out and burn sick bushes that will prevent the spread of disease.
Most often on a flower changes, root mites, nematodes, slugs. For the purpose of prevention of appearance of a narcissus fly and a nematode just before planting of a bulb for several hours warm up in hot water (43.5 degrees).
If on a bush the narcissus flies lodged, then it is processed solution of a fufanon (2%), fight against a nematode by means of such drugs as carbonation and nemafos. In a heating-up period of buds bushes process Fitoverma solution (on 10 liters of water of 20 milligrams), at the same time, 1 liter of a mix is used for spraying of 10 square meters of landings.
Narcissuses after blossoming
Features of a wintering
The narcissus differs in quite high resistance to frosts. However, if the winter is low-snow and very frosty, then the bulb wintering in the soil can freeze slightly. To most of all such bulbs thaw as during warming they waken can do much harm and begin to grow, and the returned frosts ruin flowers.
If narcissuses are in the soil in the winter when foliage completely withers and will die off, the surface of the site needs to be loosened carefully. Then it should be filled up with a mulch layer (the flown foliage, peat, wood ashes or straw) which thickness has to be 10–15 centimeters. Instead, it can be covered with special material for a covering, for example, spunbond or agrospany.
It is necessary to fill up the site with mulch only after the soil in autumn time slightly freezes slightly. And it is necessary to remove the mulching layer only after spring returnable frosts remain behind.
In what time to dig out bulbs
Daffodils after blossoming
If in the winter of a bulb are stored in the cool room, then they should be taken from the soil right after in June or July there are yellow all leaves, and their tips will dry up, at the same time the compact bush has to begin to collapse.
From the moment of the end of blossoming till that time when it is possible to dig out bulbs, sometimes there pass about 8 weeks (everything depends on temperature and humidity of air). It is not recommended to delay with the excavation of bulbs also because the dried-up leaves can disappear, and you will not find that place where there was a bush.
For extraction of narcissuses from the earth use a small garden fork. At the dug-out bulbs it is necessary to cut off foliage, and then they are stacked on drying in the shaded place.
After they dry out, and from them will fly about the soil remains, carefully separate the affiliated bulb from maternal, at the same time try not to injure backs. Examine bulbs and remove everything deformed, affected with the disease and soft, they are recommended to be destroyed.
The selected landing material is washed under a water jet, and then it is disinfected, for this purpose placed for 10–15 min. in the solution of permanganate of potassium of a dark pink color. Then he is moved away in dry, shaded and warm (from 22 to 25 degrees) the place on drying. If you moved away from him to the room, then it has to have good ventilation.
Features of storage
The bulbs cannot be stored in a plastic bag as he does not allow them “to breathe” normally, therefore, their middle begin to decay. On storage, they are moved away in well aired and cool place. It is necessary to consider that in the course of storage landing material emits gas and if the crowds much, then bulb can choke.
They will be perfectly stored in the shaded well-aired room, at the same time, the humidity of air has to be about 70 percent and temperature ― from 10 to 12 degrees.
Lay bulbs a thin layer in a pallet or a trellised box from a tree. During the winter you perform regular inspection of landing material (at least 1 time in 7 days). If you notice the soft or affected with a disease bulbs, then they are removed and destroyed.
If on a thin skin surface луковичек specks of yellow or white color were formed, it means that on them there was decay, and symptom of the fungal disease is their darkening. At struck with bacterial decay луковичек not palatable smell appears.
Types and grades of narcissuses with a photo and names
Numerous grades of narcissuses are registered by the Royal Horticultural Society. All garden forms of narcissuses were united by it under the general name Narcissus hybrids in 13 groups, at the same time 12 of them systematizes garden narcissuses, and one ― natural forms and species of such flower. Below the short description of garden narcissuses will be submitted.
This group on a flower stalk has 1 big flower, length of a tube and a share of a perianth identical, in certain cases the tube is a little longer. The color of flowers is two-color, but most often it white or yellow. Such grades breed very well, their bulb in the diameter reach 50 mm and more. The grade of Gin and Lime ― perianth and crown of a lemon shade. The crown gradually changes the color to white with a peephole of green color.
This narcissus single. Flowers can have a corrugated crown or smooth, its length is a little more than 1/3 parts from the length of petals. The color can be the most different, in certain cases the crown is decorated by a rim of a saturated shade. Duration and terms of blossoming and also the length of a flower stalk at different grades differ. In comparison with tubular narcissuses of a bulb of the smaller size.
Perianth color snow-white, and crowns ― saturated-pink.
This narcissus also single. Length of a crown does not exceed 1/3 parts of the length of petals. Average size flowers with gentle aroma are, as a rule, painted in whitish and cream color. Such grades magnificently blossom. The very beautiful grade is Sabine Hay ― not a really big flower the perianth of orange color and a saturated-red crown decorates. Differs in late blossoming.
This group differs in high decorative effect. On a flower stalk at these grades can be as one flower, and a little. Only the crown or all flower can be terry. The form, color, and size of flowers can be different as in this group those grades which corresponded to the only principle ― double were selected.
Tahiti grade ― this grade long time was in a private collection, and the world learned about it rather recently. The size of a flower is about 80-100 mm. Saturated-yellow shares of a perianth in a middle connect to combs of an orange-red crown. This grade differs in what it gradually burns out in the sun.
Undersized grades, the height of bushes at which about 0.25 meters, enter into this group. On one flower stalk 2–3 flowers with a small crown and little unbent petals are formed. Ice Wing’s grade ― an effective flower possesses a very large crown and petals of a snow-white color. Long blossoming.
In the group, the grades received as a result of the crossing of a narcissus sort of cycle changes with cultural and specific forms are collected. Most often flowers single, externally similar about cyclamen ― petals are unbent back. The thin long crown in certain cases is even longer than petals. Blossoms very much early. Cotinga grade ― the color of petals snow-white. Early and average blossoming.
In the group, the grades created by selectors with the use of a specific narcissus are collected. Late blossoming. The color of sheet plates dark green, and on one flower stalk is formed several flowers. Length of a crown of a bowl-shaped form does not exceed 2/3 lengths of a perianth. On the same place without change, it is possible to grow up a flower from 5 to 7 years. Suzy grade ― differs in average blossoming. The perianth is painted in golden-yellow color, and a crown ― in orange-red.
Grades of this group are frost-resistant. On a pedicel, the clustery inflorescence which part 2–20 fragrant flowers are is formed. The form of shares of a perianth roundish crown not really big. Foliage color dark green. Hugh Town grade ― is available for a yellow flower an effective orange crown of a graceful form.
On a flower stalk only one white flower, a crown at it small (about 1/3 lengths of a perianth) and bright are formed. Perianths are painted in a milky-white shade. Bulbs very small. The size, term of blossoming and a form completely depend on a grade. Actaea grade ― a flower of a perfect form has a crown of yellow color with a green peephole and a red rim.
Narcissuses with small bell flowers enter into this group. Today the Australian selectors are busy with removal of new grades. Grades with white flowers come across.
The fringed crown at flowers as if is torn, petals at them also fringed. This group is divided into 2 subgroups: Split crown. Crown segments and also shares of a perianth are located the friend opposite to the friend. Papillon. The flower the building is similar to a butterfly. Palmares grade ― pinkish-white flowers possess the cut a little compressed crown. Blossoming is average, prefers bright lighting.
Those grades which on signs cannot be carried to any of groups are a part of this group.
As a part of this group, there are only specific narcissuses, and their hybrids. A grade of “Odorus Plenus” ― effective terry flowers have a pleasant aroma, it differs in average and late blossoming. From all grades, the pink narcissus is allocated. Such plant with a crown of pink color appeared in England in 1921 thanks to efforts R.O. Backhaus. It was used for removal of a set of the grades belonging to various classes, for example tubular, terry, etc. However, they are all the same called pink.
Foundling grade ― a narcissus with petals of a snow-white color, and with a crown of saturated-pink color. This grade is awarded a large number of international awards.
Bulbs of narcissus in east medicine was used at mastitis. For this purpose, the cleaned bulb was crushed, and the received weight was connected to thick porridge from rice or rye flour. Smeared with the received mix a sore breast. After full drying means was deleted with warm water.
Smeared a breast with means twice or three times a day, and it quite well helped, but only if the woman had no allergy to the substances which are a part of bulbs. To understand whether such means of the specific patient approach, it was possible by practical consideration. If after its use a small tortoiseshell or reddening of skin was observed, and an itch, then was considered that this means is not suitable for treatment.