Care Rose bushes treat a sort of dogroses which appeared on Earth about 40 million years ago. Today the given sort unites about 250 species of various plants and more than 200 thousand grades. At first, it was called as the ancient Persian word “wrodon”, then in its Greek began to call “rhodon”. Later this word was transformed by Romans to “rosa”.
In moderate and warm areas of the Northern hemisphere, it is possible to meet roses in wild conditions, they do not concede in beauty and excellent aroma to garden forms. Today gardeners grow up the most various grades and hybrids of this plant which differ in surprising beauty of flowers.
They enjoy special popularity not only at flower growers, gardeners, and landscape designers but also at all fans of fine. In spite of the fact that roses have an incredibly beautiful appearance, it is very simple to grow up them.
It explains their broad application in green construction. Distinguish the following species of a cultural rose: garden and park. Among garden roses, the following groups enjoy the greatest popularity: tea and hybrid, Grandiflora, braided, soil cover, bush, floribunda also tiny. It will be in detail told about rose bushes below.
Features of rose bushes
Bushes of a rose of such type can have the most varied form directly depending on a grade ― from sprawling to narrow-pyramidal. The bush height which can vary from 25 to 300 centimeters also depends on a look and a grade (and even more). Branches at bushes of such plants are divided into 2 types, namely, one-year stalks and uterine (main). Neparnoperisty sheet plates have leaflets of an elliptic or ovoid form with a pilchard edge. And also are available for them 2 leaf-like of a stipule.
Цветонос such plants can have a length of 10-80 centimeters, at the same time diameter of florets varies from 2 to 18 centimeters. Incredibly beautiful flowers of a rose can have the most varied form and coloring. Florets, as a rule, consist of 5–120 petals.
Meet both single flowers, and being a part of inflorescences (3–200 pieces). Inform flowers distinguish pompom, cone-shaped, cup-shaped, flat, spherical and others. The color of roses can be the most various, so, today there are no flowers only of saturated-blue color.
Thanks to works of selectors the huge set of grades and hybrids of roses which can be painted in the most different color shades and their combinations was born, at the same time “list” constantly grows.
Of course, the blossomed rose flowers ― this surprising show. And even roses which during blossoming change the color can delight the most experienced judge of beauty. Also, these flowers differ in a big variety of aromas.
Features of cultivation of rose bushes in a garden
Not without reason, the rose is called “the queen of flowers”. If you want to have at yourself on the garden site a fragrant bush of a rose, then for this purpose it is just necessary to know some features and cunnings in care of it. So, in order that this plant normally grew and developed in your garden, it is necessary to know that:
- Rose bushes differ in a rather high frost resistance, but it does not mean at all that preparation for a wintering is not required to them. At the same time, it should be taken into account also the fact that these flowers, as a rule, rather large and therefore the gardener should make efforts in order that, properly to wrap up a bush. So, for example, the rose of a floribunda or tea and hybrid has a little smaller sizes.
- This plant is not strongly exacting in leaving as usually speak about it. However, at the same time, it is necessary to consider that the annual forming scraps of stalks, as well as sanitary, are simply necessary for it.
- In autumn time surely it is necessary to carry out the procedure of cutting of flowering again bushes.
- It is necessary to remember that on stalks a large number enough sharp prickles is located.
- Bushes at such plant sprawling also have an extremely effective appearance. The rose bush is used often for the formation of a green hedge and also it can be grown up and as a single plant.
In what time landing of a rose is made
Experts advise planting rose bushes only in the autumn time since the beginning of September and to the second half of October. It is recommended to buy landing material shortly before landing, but not in the spring.
The matter is that in springtime, as a rule, sell the landing material which is not bought up last fall. Buying saplings it is necessary to be extremely attentive and to make their careful survey. Those saplings which look the most powerful are worth buying and have no symptoms of diseases.
After you buy quality landing material, it will be necessary to choose the most suitable place for landing. Such a plant is photophilous. That which is in a distance from bushes and trees, having good illumination, but at the same time in lunch hours being in shading will be the optimum place for its landing.
On this site bushes which will look just magnificently will grow, at the same time their blossoming will last long rather, and florets will not lose the saturation of the coloring. Also, it is necessary to consider that the place for a landing of a rose should not be in the lowland, it is also best of all if ground waters are not located too close to the surface of the soil.
It is still recommended to protect a bush from the wind blowing from the northeast or from the North. The site on which roses were grown up quite long time will not be suitable for landing. Best of all the earth which is well trained is suitable for these plants a little sour (рН from 6 to 6.5). Also, it is necessary to consider that the more nutritious there will be soil, the blossoming of bushes will be more beautiful and more magnificent.
Rules of landing
Before planting saplings to the open ground, they need to be prepared. It becomes just before landing. You need a very sharp tool which needs to be sterilized.
By means of it, it is necessary to cutbacks, at the same time having completely cut off dried and also to truncate escapes on the height from 15 to 20 centimeters. Then the root system should be shipped in water at several o’clock and to pull out just before disembarkation. Prepare a pole of rounded shape which diameter ― from 40 to 50 centimeters.
At the same time, it is necessary to remember that the depth of a hole has to exceed the height of the root system measured together with an earth lump on 10 centimeters. The bottom of a pole should be loosened, having used a pitchfork.
To determine more exact depth of a landing pole, it is necessary to consider at what height the inoculation is located. So, after landing it has to be at a depth of 3-4 centimeters.
The earth which remained after excavation of a landing pole has to be connected to compost (3:1) and it is also necessary to pour a handful of wood ashes into it. Dissolve 1 tablet of heteroauxin in 10 l of water and pour out the turned-out solution in a pole.
That bushes got accustomed in short terms, they need to be landed correctly. At first in a pole, it is necessary to lower a plant, and then it is gradually necessary to fill up it with soil, at the same time holding a sapling for a stalk.
The soil needs to be condensed all the time. Around a bush, it is necessary to make the circular roller at distance from a stalk in 30 centimeters that will help water not to spread during watering. Then it is necessary to hill a sapling on a height of 15 centimeters and to shading it from sunshine for 10 days. the 2nd time it will be necessary to make watering of a bush two days later.
In that case when the rose intended for landing in a garden grows in a container, in a pole it is necessary to fill not a really large number of the earth mixed with compost. In a container pour in a lot of water and lower it in the prepared pole. Accurately remove capacity and then pour the necessary number of the soil into a hole. Further, follow the above-described instruction.
The distance between bushes directly depends on a grade of flowers and can vary from 100 to 200 centimeters. It is necessary to leave the same distance also in row-spacings.
At autumn landing of a rose bush to be prepared for this procedure it is necessary to begin in 8 weeks. In case ground waters approach too close the surface of the soil, then for roses it is necessary to build the raised bed.
Otherwise, the root system of a plant will be almost constantly in dampness, and from it, on it, there can be a decay, bushes will look unhealthy. Remember that soil in a garden is ideal only in isolated cases, in this regard it needs to be “corrected” what it would become suitable for cultivation of a rose bush. Remember that the bush which is grown up by you will be how beautiful, the soil directly depends on structure.
During the digging of soil in it, it is necessary to introduce fertilizers and humus. So, on 1 sq.m of the site the full ten-liter bucket of peat and garden compost (manure), on a couple of glasses of wood ashes and bone meal and also from 30 to 50 grams of superphosphate undertakes.
It is necessary to bring sand in excessively clay soil (on 1 sq.m 1 or 2 buckets). During landing time it is necessary to conform to those rules which are described above. The bushes planted in autumn time should be filled up completely on a wintering with the soil.
Landing of a rose in the spring
In case the winter period differs strongly in frosts, then planting of a sapling of a rose can be made in springtime. Do it from the middle of April and to the second half of May, it is necessary that soil at the same time was heated-up to 10 degrees.
It is recommended to make the above-described preparation of a hole not less than in 4 weeks prior to disembarkation. It is necessary to cut too long backs and to completely remove that dried and also patients. It is necessary to cut off stalks that they were from 10 to 15 centimeters high and had not less than 2-4 kidneys.
In that case, when landing material a long time was stored, and its backs quite strongly dried up, it is necessary to lower them a day before landing in water, and directly before the disembarkation to ship in the clay and manure talker. It is necessary to pour into a pole the hill a small part of the prepared soil (as to make it, you see above).
Then in it, it is necessary to put a sapling and holding it for escape with one hand, another needs to be poured gradually into a pole soil, without forgetting to stamp it constantly. Remember that the place of inoculation has to appear at a depth from 3 to 5 centimeters.
When the sapling is planted, it should be watered well and when water is absorbed, to a hill. After the emergence of the first sprout, the soil which was used for earthing up of a bush should be cleaned. At the same time, the surface of the soil around a bush should be powdered with a mulch layer (humus or peat) which height has to be about 5-8 centimeters. As a mulch for sites with roses, it is necessary to use the bark of pine or spill.
How to look after roses in a garden
Within the first year from the moment of landing of a rose bush, it is regularly necessary to make a nipping of tips of stalks in order that the bush became more magnificent. Also to the middle of the summer period, it is necessary to tear off bud, at once after their emergence.
The matter is that they are capable to take away a large number of forces from a weak very young bush. From the middle of the summer period it is necessary to wait until the bud completely is created, and then to tear off it.
It should be noted that this species of a rose differs in fast growth. It is rather short terms becomes a powerful bush and problems in cultivation with it arises much less, than for example with a standard, room or wicker rose.
In order that the rose felt comfortable and was healthy, it is necessary to look after it following certain rules. In order that the plant felt well and normally developed, systematic watering and loosening of a surface of the soil, regular cutting of stalks and removal of weeds, and timely fertilizing, the fertilizers suitable for this purpose is necessary for it.
As it is correct to water
Such plants are not very hygrophilous. Experts advise to carry out watering only in case of need, to be exact, when soil becomes absolutely dry. It is necessary to remember that watering has to be infrequent, but quite plentiful.
However, just planted bushes within the first year of life need to be watered every 2nd day. In springtime water more plentifully as very young stalks and sheet plates begin to grow actively. During the droughty hot summer period, it is necessary to increase the frequency of watering, at the same time it should be taken into account what on each bush of a rose should be used on 1 full ten-liter bucket of water.
It is necessary to water at the roots and rather accurately not to bare the root system of a plant. Remember that it is impossible to water with cold water a rose bush. In the last days of the summer period after the bush fades, the amount of water used when watering is reduced. It will allow to avoid stagnation of liquid in soil and to save a plant from the appearance of fungal diseases in a root system.
However, before the winter period, it is necessary to impregnate soil with water. Watering is recommended to be made in the morning before the heat begins, or an evening, but at the same time it is necessary to consider that if on sheet plates liquid droplets get, then they have to evaporate till the night. It is recommended to use drop watering.
It is necessary to feed up a rose bush systematically. After the plant is planted, within the first year he does not need to be fed up, but from the second year of life, it is regularly just necessary to introduce to the soil fertilizers. Mode of fertilizing:
- the first (double fertilizing) ― is made in springtime at the very beginning of the period of active growth;
- the second ― during budding;
- the third ― when a plant will fade;
- the fourth ― before will begin to stiffen stalks.
After cutting of a rose is carried out to springtime, fertilizing is made, for this purpose on 1 square meter undertakes on 20 grams of ammonium nitrate and sulfate of ammonium. Later a half-month it is necessary to repeat the introduction of nitrogen-containing fertilizer.
During budding for fertilizing of a rose using the following nutritious mix: 30 grams of superphosphate, from 20 to 30 grams of ammonium nitrate, 10 grams of potash salt (on 1 square meter). It is possible to replace such nutritious mixes used for fertilizing “Kemira the versatile person”, at the same time on 1 square meter from 30 to 40 grams of substance undertake.
When blossoming ends, for fertilizing use complex fertilizers with minerals. From the last July days, it is necessary to stop fertilizing of a bush nitrogen-containing fertilizers. From August to September it is necessary to bring superphosphate and potash salt in the soil, at the same time on 1 square meter about 30–40 grams of fertilizer undertake.
If there is desire, it is possible to feed up rose bushes serially organic, mineral fertilizers. As organic fertilizers, it is recommended to use dung water, a chicken dung or wood ashes.
Features of change
After a while after the landing of a rose bush, it should be replaced surely. The matter is that over time it strongly expands and at the same time loses the attractive appearance. It is recommended to replace a rose in April or October, at the same time it should be taken into account that in the spring the plant postpones this procedure much better, than in the fall.
Before starting change, it is necessary to cut off a bush on 20 centimeters, to remove all weak or damaged branches, to break the available leaflets. It is necessary to consider that at the imparted bush the system of roots grows deep into. In case the rose is own roots, its backs are located rather close to the surface of the soil.
Taking into account these features of a plant it is necessary to pull out a bush from the earth by means of a shovel together with an earth lump. If during an excavation of a rose peripheral backs are injured, then in it there is nothing terrible.
The matter is that after the change of a bush on the new place such backs will quickly enough be restored. The dug-out system of roots is recommended to be shifted to a big piece of strong fabric that will facilitate its transfer on the new place.
At the same time if there is such need, then when landing the rose it is possible not to remove the fabric, over time she will decay. In the prepared hole, it is necessary to pour in a large amount of water. Further change is carried out by the same rules, as the landing of a sapling.
During landing time it is necessary to consider that at the imparted rose the inoculation has to appear under the soil at a depth from 3 to 5 centimeters, and the own roots bush has to have a lump of the earth at the same level with the surface of the soil.
At cultivation of such plants in improper conditions for them can lead to the fact that they will become very weak and will lose resistance to diseases and also on them various mean insects can lodge. The weakened plants often catch such diseases as Plasmopara halstedii, black spottiness, mealy dew, rust or хлороз.
To get rid of fungal diseases, it is necessary to use one of the following fungicides means suspension of colloidal sulfur (1%) or solution of copper vitriol (3%). Hloroz arises because the plant lacks some element, most often no iron.
The rose sick hlorozy changes the color for yellow. To find out what element is not enough, it will be necessary to carry out the analysis of soil. After that, it is necessary to bring the soil the element lacking a rose in the form of salts in the recommended dosage.
On a rose bush, the most various wreckers who are divided into sucking and gnawing can lodge. Larvae of sawflies, bugs and caterpillars, and to sucking ― ticks, cicadas, plant lice, scale, and whiteflies a rose family belong to gnawing. Insects who are sucking lodge on elevated parts of a rose. They are capable to puncture them and to exhaust vegetable juice.
As a result sheet plates become yellow, are twisted and fly and also there can be a drying up of a stalk. The gnawing insects eat directly parts of a rose. As a result growth and development of a bush slows down, blossoming becomes poor, and the plant loses the attractive appearance.
It is possible to struggle with mean insects after they to settle on a plant, but experienced gardeners recommend to carry out preventive processing in the spring. It should be made before kidneys bulk up, and it is necessary to use for this purpose such insecticides as carbophos.
It is also possible for this purpose to use a solution which part the bucket of water and 2 grams of kerosene were. Cutting of roses will be carried out to autumn time after, it is necessary to remove all cut-off branches and the fallen-down leaflets and to burn them. Then it is necessary to process a bush and the surface of the soil under its special means.
As it is correct to cut off
To what time to carry out cutting
Cutting of roses ― is the most labor-consuming procedure in care of such plants which should be seen off surely. After cutting the bush will become more branchy and the number of flowers will increase. It is necessary to cut off stalks in spring, summer and autumn time.
The cutting which is carried out in the spring is the most significant as the bush will be able to be exempted from the unnecessary and damaged stalks and also there will be its formation. In the summer cutting only in the sanitary purposes is, as a rule, carried out.
So, during it remove all excess bud, leaving only one, therefore, the flower turns out very big and beautiful. Also, remove faded florets and the available fruits. In an autumn time of scrap, it is necessary to remove all the weak, injured and sick stalks which take away many forces from a rose.
As cutting is carried out
It is necessary to remove from a bush all injured and weak branches before swelling of kidneys. Still, it is necessary to cut off those branches that grow in a bush, and further, it is possible to start directly forming.
In that case, when 2 branches have interfered with each other, it is necessary to cut off that from them that takes place less successfully or leave that which is younger (bark has a light color). At cultivation of the imparted rose bush it is necessary to pay special attention to the cutting of radical young growth because it takes away a large number of forces therefore blossoming cannot occur at all from a flower.
It is recommended to cut off all stalks except the strongest and strong which have to blossom this year. At inability it is correct to cut off a deflowered bush, it is necessary to do it at own discretion. At the same time, it is necessary to remember that after cutting on stalks there have to be not less than 2 kidneys.
On the cut-off bush, very young greens quickly enough appear. The care in a scrap should be shown in case soil is already exhausted or the bush is old because he is not capable to restore own form so actively anymore. In the autumn time, it is necessary to tear off all florets which already faded and it is necessary to cut off the damaged, weak branches or those that grow in a bush. Carry out surely processing of places of cuts by the garden thief.
Reproduction of roses
The rose bush can be multiplied seeds and in a vegetative way, namely:
- division of a bush;
Reproduction by seeds
Most often seeds only selectors make multiple copies a rose, wishing to remove a new hybrid or a grade. Seeds it is possible to multiply only the plant growing in wild conditions, but at the same time, it is necessary to consider that not all from the known types will be able to give seeds capable to ascend.
In the last July days or in August it is necessary to carry out the preparation of seeds, at the same time fruits have to become red. They should be cleaned and put on storage in the moistened sand for 4 months, at the same time temperature has to be maintained from 2 to 5 degrees. It is stratification, necessary for seeds.
In springtime they should be shipped in a solution of the substance stimulating the growth of roots (for example, heteroauxin) at several o’clock then they are sowed, burying to the soil at 1–3 centimeters, and the surface of the soil is powdered with a mulch layer (peat, humus).
After formation of 2-3 real leaflets makes seating of little plant, at the same time intervals between them have to be from 6 to 8 centimeters, and between a number ― 20 centimeters. In the summertime, it is necessary to feed up plants mineral fertilizers.
For this purpose on 1 square meter, 60 grams of phosphoric, 40 grams of nitric and 10 grams of potash fertilizers undertake. For all next year it is necessary to provide to plants necessary care (watering, fertilizing, weeding). In August when a plant grows up, they are used as a stock.
Roses from shanks
Graftage is considered in the most reliable way which it is possible to multiply a rose bush. As stem shanks use 2 types of escapes, namely: semi-lignified and lignified. This method of reproduction is often used in relation to room or park roses.
Begin to Odrevesnevat green stalks after the first florets blossom that is a signal that it is time to cut shanks. For a graftage, it is not necessary to use too lignified and green stalks. The approximate thickness of a shank is equal to pencil thickness, and its length ― about 8 centimeters. 5 mm above kidneys should be made the top cut which has to be direct.
The lower cut should be done directly under a kidney and at the same time, it has to be slanting (at an angle in 45 degrees). From below at a shank it is necessary to tear off all thorns and leaflets, at the same time there have to be only 2 sheet plates and they should be truncated on 1/2 part. The cut which is below needed to be subjected to processing by phytohormones.
It is necessary to implant shanks in the open ground. For this purpose, they are put in the shaded place in the prepared flute filled with sand (thickness of a layer of sand of 15 centimeters). Between shanks, the distance from 15 to 30 centimeters is maintained.
For a shank it is necessary to condense the soil, then to make watering and to cover all with a film. At you, the similarity of tiny small greenery has to turn out. It is possible to do small holes in order that to roses fresh air arrived in the shelter or it is necessary to slightly open systematically it for airing.
Provide to plant timely watering, fertilizing, weeding and loosening of a substrate. The formed bud should be torn off as they weaken to a little plant. On a wintering, these roses should be covered with the heater put in 2 layers, and to atop lay a polyethylene film.
With the approach of spring, heater needs to be removed, and gradually it is necessary to accustom plant to the external environment. For this purpose, it is necessary to slightly open the shelter. It will be possible to replace the grown-up shank to the constant place in a garden only for the 3rd year of life.
The inoculation is made on very young seedlings of a dogrose. Look, most suitable for this purpose, ― rose dog (Rosa canina) and also about 20 of its versions. It has high frost resistance and well-developed system of roots. And as a stock, it is possible to use such roses as wrinkled, friable, small flowers, cinnamon, etc. The inoculation a budding is made in summertime in the middle of July:
- From a root neck of a stock remove the earth and tear off all side stalks.
- On a root neck, the cut in the form of letter “T” becomes, at the same time the horizontal cut is equal to 10 mm, and vertical ― 25 mm. In a cut, it is necessary to move apart bark accurately.
- From a high-quality rose, the ripened shank is cut off. At it, it is necessary to remove leaflets and a top. Cut out from it a peephole the movement from below up, at the same time has taken a wood layer (its surplus needs to be removed).
- The peephole is inserted into a cut on a Scion, and this place is hardly washed away by a budding film.
21 days later it is necessary to look at how the kidney feels. If everything is normal, then it will bulk up and if is not present ― that will turn black.
- Before a wintering, it is necessary to carry out earthing up of plants, at the same time it is necessary to bury the place of inoculation at 5 centimeters. In springtime carefully clean the soil from inoculation and remove a film. It is necessary to make a cutting of stock so that over an inoculation there was only 1 centimeter. The stalk which grew from a kidney should be pinching over the 3 or 4 sheet plate. If it is correct to look after a bush, then by fall it can be replaced to the constant place.
Division of a bush
It is possible to divide a bush only at an own root plant. In autumn or springtime, it is necessary to dig a bush and to divide it by means of very sharp, in advance sterilized, the tool into parts. Each allotment has to have roots and not less than 1 stalks.
Make processing of cuts the crushed coal and land an allotment, as usual. Best of all division of a floribunda and a poliantovy rose transfer. A division of a bush at the beginning of spring to summer of a calf will already plentifully blossom.
Layers can be received both from imparted and from the own root of bushes. For this purpose stalks which grow at root, the neck will be necessary for you. At the beginning of spring, it is necessary to make a ring cut on this stalk.
Then it is pressed to the soil and put in in advance dug through a not really deep flute. Record a stalk in the middle a hook or a bracket from a wire and shower with a substrate, but at the same time, the top has to appear on the surface of the soil.
Near a top thrust a peg and tie up it so that she looked up. Do not forget to water in summertime the soil over a layer. The office of a layer should be made only with the approach of the next spring period.
What to do after the end of blossoming
It is necessary to water plants less each time, at the same time in September to stop watering absolutely. In the middle of August, it is necessary to feed up a bush potassium-phosphorus fertilizers.
Very young escapes can be deleted as till winter they will not ripen. In the autumn time, it is necessary to weed and loosen soil only. Earthing up of roses on a wintering requires dry mix from sand (peat) and soil.
After the first frosts, it is necessary to hill a bush on the height from 15 to 20 centimeters and to close this place a film, having protected it from rainfall. If it is necessary to put or replace a plant, then it is possible to make it in September.
Preparation of roses for winter
Cut off everything the sick, weak, dried or injured branches in the fall, cut off not quite ripe tips of stalks. Spread cuts with the garden thief. You watch that after cutting stalks were not longer than 50 centimeters.
Tear off all leaflets and collect them also from under a bush. They are recommended to be destroyed. Process a bush and the surface of the soil under it the Bordeaux liquid (1%). After temperature falls less at night minus 6–8 degrees, bushes it is necessary to cover with the dried leaves or fir twigs.
The special heater also will be suitable for the shelter, but under it, in winter time the plant can begin to rot. For this purpose, the framework is made of 2 arches which are established cross-wise. Atop the warming material, and on it a film keeps within.
Roses in the winter
On the site, it is necessary to place baits for rodents with a poison. After there are snowdrifts, it is necessary to shower with snow the covered rose bushes. The bushes covered with heater need to be aired during that.